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Executive Order 9066
February 19, 1942

Japanese Americans, Los Angeles, 1942

Japanese Americans being removed from Los Angeles to Santa Anita Assembly Center, 1942. Photo by U.S. Army Signal Corps, courtesy of Library of Congress.

At the beginning of 1942, some 37,000 persons of Japanese ancestry lived in Los Angeles County. This population included a thriving fishing community on Terminal Island with about 25,000 residents. The nation was at war with Japan and ethnic Japanese, two-thirds of whom were American citizens, were looked upon with deep suspicion. On February 19, 1942, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, ordering all persons of Japanese ancestry to be "evacuated" or excluded from the West Coast. Areas in which they were excluded included all of California, the western halves of Washington and Oregon, and southern Arizona. Those unwilling or unable to relocate outside this area were to be restricted to "relocation" camps until they could either find jobs and homes in communities outside the exclusion zone or until the war was concluded. The reason given was to protect the militarily vulnerable Pacific Coast against sabotage and espionage by agents and sympathizers of Japan. This view was supported by California Governor Culbert Olsen, State Attorney General Earl Warren and Los Angeles Mayor Fletcher Bowron. Although some military authorities asked for similar exclusions and restrictions for German and Italian immigrants (Germany and Italy were also at war with the U.S.), public opinion was not in favor of this.

Japanese, American, Exclusion, Relocation, Camps, Concentration, World War II

Ethnic Japanese exclusion zone and relocation camps in the U.S., World War II. Courtesy of National Park Service.

There was no evidence that California's ethnic Japanese population ever posed any threat to the country in which they lived. In fact, Japanese Americans were eager to prove their loyalty by quickly volunteering to be air raid wardens or enlisting in the armed forces (when allowed to). To be sure, government officials acknowledged that most ethnic Japanese were loyal Americans, yet there was a need to put the restrictions in place to guard against those who were not. The government made attempts to prevent relocated persons from suffering severe economic losses by having to quickly dispose of homes and businesses. Such losses often occurred anyway.

Japanese American women and children being removed from Los Angeles Harbor, 1942. Photo by U.S. War Relocation Authority, courtesy of Library of Congress.

One of the bright spots in this dark event, however, according to Los Angeles A to Z by Leonard and Dale Pitt, was the Dayton Heights neighborhood near L.A. City College and Vermont Avenue. White and black neighbors in this neighborhood protected and maintained the property of their relocated ethnic Japanese neighbors until the property could be reclaimed at the end of the war.

Japanese Americans, Los Angeles, 1942

Fishing boats formerly owned by Japanese Americans tied up in San Pedro, 1942. Photo by U.S. War Relocation Authority, courtesy of Library of Congress.

In 1988, Congress passed legislation to award formal payments of $20,000 to each surviving internee—60,000 in all.

Also see A Brief History of Japanese American Relocation During World War II, National Park Service.

Also see L.A. Video: Bronzeville, Little Tokyo.